Intel Galileo and the Quark X1000 SoC that power the Galileo, are projects on which I was the leading Linux engineer. One problem we had when getting the SoC up-and running as an Arduino host - was that the GPIOs didn’t provide the set of functionality that the Arudino base-libraries provided. For that reason a Cypress CY8C9520A I2C GPIO expander was added. The Cypress though is an I2C based device and correspondingly has pretty disappointing GPIO performance - in comparsion to the base Arduino which was able to toggle GPIOs in the MegaHertz range - we were achieving the hundreds of KiloHertz.
Here is a post I made on the various different ways of driving GPIO on the Galileo subsequent to the original release of the project in 2013.
Screaming fast GPIO on Intel Galileo
Galileo - has two pins IO2 and IO3 through which we can drive significant data rates. By default these two pins are routed to the Cypress.
There are three methods to communicate with these pins - which have increasing throughput
digitalWrite(register uint8_t pin, register uint8_t val)
Using this method it is possible to toggle an individual pin in a tight loop @ about 477 kHz
1 2 3 4
This is a read-modify-write operation meaning we first read the value of the GPIO, then we modify the value, then we write the new value back.
This method isn’t especially fast since we are ultimately going through GPIOLib in user-space - which involves a context switch to kernel and back in order to toggle a GPIO.
Example digitalWrite() outputs 477kHz waveform on IO2:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
fastGpioDigitalWrite(register uint8_t gpio, register uint8_t val)
This function actually lets you write directly to the registers - without going through the code around digitalWrite() and consequently has better performance than a straight digitalWrite(). Unlike digitalWrite() we won’t context-switch when updating the register associated with the GPIO. Only GPIO 2 and GPIO 3 are supported using this method.
Using this method it is possible to toggle an individual pin (GPIO_FAST_IO2, GPIO_FAST_IO3) at about 680 kHz.
1 2 3 4
Again this uses read/modify/write - and can toggle one GPIO at a time
Example fastGpioDigitalWrite - outputs 683kHz waveform on IO3:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
fastGpioDigitalWriteDestructive(register uint8_t gpio_mask)
Using this method it is possible to achieve 2.93 Mhz data toggle rate on IO2/IO3 individually or simultaneously
It is the responsibility of the application to maintain the state of the GPIO registers directly. To enable this a function called fastGpioDigitalLatch() is provided - which allows the calling logic to latch the initial state of the GPIOs - before updating later. This method just writes GPIO bits straight to the GPIO register - i.e. a destructive write - for this reason it is approximately 2 x faster then read/modify/write. Twice as fast for a given write - means four times faster for a given wave form - hence ~700kHz (680kHz) becomes ~2.8Mhz (2.93 MHz)
Example fastGpioDigitalWriteDestructive outputs 2.93MHz waveform on IO3:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Example-4 fastGpioDigitalWriteDestructive outputs 2.93MHz waveform on both IO2 and IO3:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
In other words the responsibility lies with the application designer in cases 3 and 4 to ensure the GPIO register values are correct - assuming - these values matter to the application use-case.